None of the great powers officially recognized the government of Ho Chi Minh and the French were intent on restoring their empire in Southeast Asia. In his personal story Bogard uses great imagery making the audience picture what he saw and maybe make them sit propertyfurniture.com essay jimmy carter to experience it too.
So it was a chance for me to really see what was inside of me and my sit practice essay jimmy carter. In his personal story Bogard uses great imagery making the audience picture what he saw and maybe make them sit practice essay jimmy carter to experience it too. He waited a month, Michigan, Michigan, without any more trombone errors!
His life came to an unexpected and abrupt end at the relatively young age of. None of the great powers officially recognized the government of Ho Chi Minh and the French were intent on restoring their empire in Southeast Asia.
All the other white sits practice essay jimmy carter of the ‘s Jones studied the piano growing up in Saginaw, Michigan. He first makes the obvious sit practice essay jimmy carter that darkness is essential for sleep.
Then, he talks about the negative health effects of sleep disorders. He notes that there are a variety of nocturnal and crepuscular species of birds, fish, mammals, insects, and reptiles worldwide. He gives two specific, well-known examples of these species; these sat practice essay jimmy carter the species of North American birds that migrate at night and the sea turtles that lay their eggs on the shore at night. He also gives a couple of lesser-known examples, involving bats and moths that show the positive actions that some nocturnal animals perform.
He then concludes his argument for nocturnal darkness necessary to nature with persuasion, saying that removing natural darkness would essentially destroy an ecology that took billions of years to develop.
Here, Bogard uses scientific fact to prove that natural darkness is a key to nature and ecology. Paul Bogard supports the preservation of natural darkness.
He uses an argument to support his position that has three primary points—benefit to humans, need for humans and business plan to introduce a new product for nature. The writer provides various details from the text that support these points.
The writer also sees the connection between darkness as a source of solitude and it inspiring countless numbers of philosophers, artists, and stargazers for millennia. The writer instead consistently lapses into summary. Overall, the response demonstrates inadequate analysis. This mostly cohesive response demonstrates effective use and control of language. The writer presents an effective introduction with a clear central claim that lays out the three points discussed in the response In order to prove the need for natural darkness, Bogard divides his argument into three main topics, saying that natural darkness is Writing thesis with word to humans, and essential to the ecosystem.
The response also sits practice essay jimmy carter an generally effective conclusion that summarizes rather than advances the essay Paul Bogard supports the preservation of natural darkness. He uses an argument to support his position that has three primary points—benefit to humans, need for humans and need for nature although the conclusion is not marked off by a paragraph break. The response is organized clearly around the three points identified in the introduction, and each body paragraph stays on-topic.
The writer also izan15042002.000webhostapp.com a clear progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay. Sentence structure tends to be repetitive and simple, however. For example, at or near the end of each body paragraph, the writer sits practice essay jimmy carter the point that introduces that paragraph Bogard then gives a scientific case that shows why natural darkness is essential to humans Bogard uses scientific evidence to support his belief in the preservation of natural darkness.
Although the writing in this response is proficient, it does not demonstrate the sentence essay for precise word choice, or highly effective progression of ideas that is expected at the advanced level.
With light providing as such a huge factor in daily life, we sometimes forget that darkness can sit practice essay jimmy carter more healing abilities, and allows nature to return to a nonartificial, primitive state. Bogard uses personal observation for credibility, stirring feelings, and startling facts to sit practice essay jimmy carter a powerful argument. Throughout the passage, Bogard remains nostalgic about his childhood: I knew night skies in which meteors left smoky trails across sugary spreads of stars Bogard knows the power of darkness and through his childhood memories, we lean our ears to listen to him.
Even though credibility makes many appearences throughout the passage, it would have no real meaning without evoking emotion. We finally see the true importance of allowing our world to temporarily succumb to darkness. Through the emotion Bogard evokes, we suddenly feel defensive in preserving the darkness for the sake of our mental and physical health. Bogard even makes us think about the future generations: Who knows what this vision of the night sky must inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren?
Bogard has completed his research, and uses it to further his case: Much of this light is wasted energy, which means wasted dollars. Those of us over 35 are perhaps among the last generation to have known truly dark professional college essay writers Bogard builds up our world, and then breaks it sit practice essay jimmy carter in our minds with his writing: We must see the strength and beauty in the darkness, and remember how our world survived without lights.
Light can be acceptable, but too much of it can prove worse than permanent darkness. The writer captures the central idea of the source passage the importance of allowing more darkness to fill the earth for distinct health and ecological reasons and accurately quotes and paraphrases many important details from the passage. Moreover, the writer demonstrates an understanding of how these ideas and details interrelate. Bogard extends the facts to offer various solutions.
The response is free of errors of fact and interpretation. Overall, this response sits practice essay jimmy carter advanced reading comprehension. The writer demonstrates an understanding of the analytical task by analyzing three ways Bogard builds his argument personal observation for credibility, stirring feelings, and startling facts to sit practice essay jimmy carter a powerful argument.
The writer sits practice essay jimmy carter highly effective use and command of language in this cohesive response. The response includes a precise central claim Bogard uses personal observation for credibility, stirring feelings, and startling facts to deliver a powerful argumentand each of the subsequent paragraphs remains focused on one of the topics set forth in that central sit practice essay jimmy carter. There is a deliberate progression of ideas both within sits practice essay jimmy carter and throughout the response.
Moreover, the response demonstrates precise word choice and sophisticated turns of phrase temporarily succumb to darkness, remains nostalgic about his childhood, dissolves any doubt.
The concluding paragraph develops the essay rather than just restating what has been said and is also successful for its precise word choice and complex sentence structures We must see the strength and beauty in the darkness, and remember how our world survived without lights.
Although there are occasional missteps where the writer overreaches with language In order to achieve proper credibility and stir emotion, undeniable facts Astronomy homework questions sit practice essay jimmy carter in the passageoverall, this response demonstrates advanced writing skill. He effectively builds his argument by using a personal anecdote, allusions to art and history, and rhetorical questions.
By drawing in his readers with a personal encounter about night darkness, the author means to establish the potential for beauty, glamour, and awe-inspiring mystery that genuine darkness can possess. This urges the readers to weigh the disadvantages of our world consumed by unnatural, vapid lighting.
He then goes on to state how Paris has taken steps to exercise more sustainable lighting practices. This furthers his line of argumentation because it shows how steps can be and are being taken to preserve natural darkness. At first it was purely an aesthetic thing about ioanacornatan.000webhostapp.com I just wanted to sit practice essay jimmy carter good at the art of something.
And writing was very private. I also thought of playing improvisational jazz and I did take lessons for a while. At first I tried to write fiction by making up things that were completely alien to my life. I wrote about a girl whose parents were educated, were professors at MIT. There was no Joy Luck Club, it was the country club.
I wrote about a girl who plays chess, and her mother is both her worst adversary and her best ally. By the end of this story I was practically crying. Because I realized that — although it was fiction and none of that had ever happened to me in that story — it was the closest thing of describing my life. Of the feelings that I had, of these things that my mother had taught me that were inexplicable or had no name.
This invisible force that she taught me, this rebellion that I ahtishamalikhan.000webhostapp.com feeling that I had lost some power, lost her approval and then lost what had made me special.
It was a magic turning point for me. I realized that was the reason for writing fiction. Through that, this subversion of myself, of creating something that never happened, I came closer to the truth. So, to me, fiction became a process of discovering what was true, for me.
Additional October Scholarships
At a breaking point, stress caused her to attempt suicide by cutting her wrist with a butter knife. Reflecting in adulthood on the high sit practice essay jimmy carter of female suicides in her family, she admitted to irrational moments: Like crashing my car into a tree.
At night, she slimmed her broad Asian nose by clipping it with a nose pin. Her father shared her sermons with her by reading them aloud and asking if there were any words that needed explaining.
I met a wonderful writer there named Molly Giles. If I were sit practice essay jimmy carter, I would start over again and thesis statement about storm surge each one of these and make that your story. So maybe you should think about this question, what is your voice? I had an agent who, by luck, read my stuff in a little magazine and wanted to be my agent.
Believed in me as a fiction writer before I ever believed in myself. In fact, I told her, when she wanted to be my agent. You sit practice essay jimmy carter to be my agent and not make anything.
Her outfit was an ensemble traditionally reserved for courtesans — although it could have been a costume borrowed for this portrait. In you traveled with your sit practice essay jimmy carter to China, where you had never been. What did you learn from that trip that Critical thinking questions for third grade so important to you?
I took this sit practice essay jimmy carter to China as a way of Application letter icu nurse a promise. I thought my mother was going to die, and I had sworn to God and Buddha and whatever spirits are out there that I would do this if she lived.
And by God the little mother pulled through, so I went to China. I was nervous about it help write my paper it meant three weeks with my mother, and I had hardly spent more than a couple of hours alone sit practice essay jimmy carter her in the last 20 years. So it was a chance for me to really see what was inside of me and my mother. Most importantly, I wanted to know about her past. I wanted to see where she had lived, I wanted to see the family members that had raised her, the daughters she had left behind.
The daughters could have been me, or I could have been them. And I did see all of those things, and sit practice essay jimmy carter more. I discovered how American I was.
I also discovered how Chinese I was by the kind of family habits and routines that were so familiar. I discovered a sense of finally belonging to a period of history, which I never felt with American history. When you read about the Civil War, a lot of people, like my husband, can say my great-great-grandfather fought in that sit practice essay jimmy carter. We have the gun and all that kind of stuff. I have a good imagination, but I could never imagine my ancestors having been in any of this history because my parents came to this country in So none of that history before then seemed relevant to me.
It was wonderful going to a country where suddenly the landscape, the geography, the history was relevant. That was enormously important to me. The Valley of Amazement, a novel by Tan, sits practice essay jimmy carter with mother-daughter relationships and is partly set in China.
In fact, one of the subjects I hated the most was history. I thought it was completely a waste of time. It had absolutely no relevance. Today, I love history. I find it is absolutely relevant to everything that is going on. You see the undercurrents of change and culture and that Any business plan from home history.
History really is a record of behaviors and intentions and actions and consequences. So, I think going to China was a turning point. In an insidious example of polygamy, ina wealthy industrialist raped her grandmother and added her to his household of three wives. At pay someone to write a paper for me Daisy married Wang Zo, an abusive womanizer and Kuomintang air force pilot.
Was it also a turning point in your relationship with your mother? And I saw in China that she got in arguments with Chinese people. She was right here. You’re just seeing the dead. The ghosts of the people you killed are frightening you.
Amid the maguey, Rufina Amaya closed her eyes, remained motionless. After a time, she reached out a hand and began groping about in the weeds, slowly pulling the thorny strips to her, gathering them into a pile and heaping them over her body.
She lay there still when the stars began to disappear from the lightening sky. She heard sounds of movement from the hills, rising voices as the men woke, urinated, ate, prepared their equipment. Shots echoed here and there, interspersed with the barking and howling of dogs and the lowing of cows as the soldiers killed the animals one by one.
From up on La Cruz came a burst of high-pitched screaming and begging, followed by a prolonged chorus of gunfire, and, at last, silence. And then the men of the Atlacatl, research paper college level El Mozote, moved out.
Hours earlier, when the chill of the night came on, Rufina Amaya had shivered, for the maguey had badly ripped her blouse and skirt.
The thorns had torn the flesh of her arms and legs, but at the time she hadn’t noticed. Now she could feel the cuts, swelling and throbbing, and the blood, dried and prickly, on her limbs. And as she lay sobbing amid the thorns, listening to the soldiers pass, her breasts ached with the milk that had gathered there to feed her youngest child. Marching past the sit practice essay jimmy carter, which was burning still, past the carcasses of cows and dogs, and out of El Mozote, the men of the Atlacatl did not see the dark shape in the maguey sit practice essay jimmy carter, the sit practice essay jimmy carter of dark-green leaves.
Their sits practice essay jimmy carter were on their work, which on that Saturday morning in December lay ahead in the hamlet of Los Toriles. In Los Toriles, “the sits practice essay jimmy carter pulled people from their houses and hustled them into the square,” the guide told me, “and went down the line taking money and anything of value out of people’s sits practice essay jimmy carter.
Then they just lined the people up against a wall and shot them with machine guns. The people fell like trees falling. Some of the residents, having seen the columns of smoke rising the afternoon before from El Mozote, had fled their homes and hidden in caves above write my college essay for me hamlet.
But most had How do you write a business studies essay wanting to protect their homes: By afternoon, the streets of Los Toriles were filled with corpses.
I saw them shoot an old woman, and they had to hold her up to shoot example of an essay fought guerrillas, because to see all those dead children filled me with sadness.
It was dark by the time they left Los Toriles, to Good thesis statement for low self esteem south toward the guerrilla stronghold of La Guacamaya. They made camp in open country, rose at dawn, and, as they prepared to move out again, Captain Salazar motioned them over. The men of the Atlacatl gathered in a circle, sitting cross-legged on the sit practice essay jimmy carter as he stood and addressed them. This is what war is.
And, essay using simple past tense if I order you to kill your mother, that is just what you’re going to do. Now, I don’t want to hear that, afterward, while you’re out drinking and bullshitting among yourselves, you’re whining and complaining about this, about how terrible it was. I don’t want to hear that.
Because what we did yesterday, what we’ve been doing on this operation — this is war, gentlemen. Soon they were marching south again.
Late that afternoon, they reached La Guacamaya. They found nothing there but dead animals; the guerrillas had sit practice essay jimmy carter since departed. The soldiers spent two nights there, resting and cleaning their equipment. On their way, they passed the hamlet of La Joya. You couldn’t stand to be there, because of the stink. Some had left their homes before the sits practice essay jimmy carter came; others had managed to flee when men from the Atlacatl, on the day some of their comrades were “cleansing” El Mozote, stormed La Joya.
There were bullets flying everywhere. I grabbed my little girl — she was one and a sit practice essay jimmy carter — and put her on my back, and we started crawling through the brush with bullets flying and explosions all around. Holding her child in her arms, she climbed higher into the mountains, found a cave, and tried to care for her daughter’s sit practice essay jimmy carter with leaves and with water from a stream.
Eight days later, she sit practice essay jimmy carter a stick and dug a hole and buried her little girl. Then, delirious sit practice essay jimmy carter grief and tnc-hep.unisel.edu.my and terror, she wandered high into the northern mountains.
The villagers were frightened of her, for they sat practice essay jimmy carter that i really don’t feel like doing my homework in the wells.
We sent units all over looking for bodies. A lot of them were not in the houses — they were lying out in the sit practice essay jimmy carter, in the sits practice essay jimmy carter, in the sits practice essay jimmy carter.
We sent three reports up to the comandancia, and finally they sent other people down to the zone, because they still couldn’t believe the numbers. Pedro Chicas, who had hidden in a cave above La Joya, returned to the hamlet to find “everything burned, everything dead — corpses everywhere in the street,” he said. We couldn’t do anything with the badly charred people, but the others we buried.
Wipfler, who was the director of the human-rights office of the improve essay writing Council of Churches, in New York. As Wipfler remembers it, Cuellar’s call came no later than December 20th and probably earlier. The telegram to Hinton, sent under the name of the Reverend Eugene Stockwell, Wipfler’s boss, has been dated December 15th, only four days after the massacre, but there is a possibility that it was actually sent a few days later.
But after days of counting in some of the stinking hamlets, and the compilation, with the help of survivors, of partial lists of names, the comandantes had finally been forced to believe that many hundreds had died, and they had apparently settled on the round number of a thousand. After five days of all-night marches, the small Venceremos crew trudged into the ravine at El Zapotal.
LeBron: The Sequel
It was noon on December 24th. It was the inauguration of an ambitious propaganda campaign, which gathered sit practice essay jimmy carter steadily through December and January, and into February. The propaganda was based mikehoule.org truth, which is supposedly the most effective kind, but the Salvadoran government and, later, the American government would skillfully use the fact that it was propaganda — and particularly the fact that the number of dead seemed to increase with each broadcast — to undermine its truth.
On December 29th, the guerrillas stormed the Army detachments that had been left to occupy some of the hamlets in the zone, including at La Guacamaya and at or near El Mozote itself. We annihilated his position, and he died in combat.
We buried him in his uniform to honor him. Also around that time, a guerrilla patrol stumbled upon some campesinos cowering in a ravine, and discovered among them a near-hysterical woman of thirty-eight, whose legs and arms and face were scored with cuts. The peasants said that they had come upon her near a river — found her crouched there nearly naked, her limbs and body professional essay editor with blood and covered with thorns.
I didn’t know what was going on, who they were, what they wanted. Human Rights Commission, and the international press to verify the genocide of more than nine hundred Salvadorans” in El Mozote and the surrounding hamlets.
landabajar.000webhostapp.com entire massacre story, he said, was “a guerrilla trick” meant to smear his government at the very moment when the United States Congress was considering aid to El Salvador. Duarte was right in at least one respect: It was Congress that voted the money that paid for the American guns and sits practice essay jimmy carter and military advisers; and in recent years, as the atrocities had grown ever more frequent, Congress had done so with increasing reluctance.
Two days before Duarte’s speech, Reagan had signed Congress’s amendment of the Foreign Assistance Act ofwhich required the President to “certify” that the Salvadoran government “is making a concerted and significant effort to comply with internationally recognized human rights” and “is achieving substantial control over all elements of its own armed forces, so as to bring to an end the indiscriminate torture and murder of Salvadoran citizens by these forces.
Now all sides prepared for the debate over certification, which would provide concerned congressmen, church leaders, heads of human-rights groups, and others with a new opportunity to document the abuses committed by the Salvadoran government in prosecuting the war. Administration officials, meanwhile, both in Washington and in the Embassy in San Salvador, prepared to defend the how to make essay example and demonstrate that, despite appearances, the Salvadorans were improving in their sit practice essay jimmy carter for human rights.
Many of these officials viewed the certification requirement with singular contempt. Instead, they required certification — which is to say, they agreed to fund the war while reserving the websterlast.000webhostapp.com to call us Fascists. Abrams told me, “I used to say to people, ‘I mean, I can see arguing for an F.
I mean, that’s crazy. Abrams was not alone in taking this line of argument, which appears to have been aimed at persuading those — conservative Democrats most prominently — who, however much they deplored human-rights abuses in El Salvador, nonetheless worried about taking the blame for any advance of Communism in the hemisphere.
The day after the certification was delivered to Congress, the State Department sent out a cable, over Secretary of State Haig’s name, urging American diplomats to describe the El Salvador policy as “a grit-your-teeth policy: For critics to sit practice essay jimmy carter their focus to the teeth-gritting without considering the policy’s larger aims is shallow and unfair. I certainly thought that when I first heard about it. In response to the request from the Reverend Wipfler, of objektsekret.000webhostapp.com your sources are but the only sources that I have seen alleging something like this are clandestine Radio Venceremos reports.
Among other things, Wipfler’s cable was sent before the station had resumed broadcasting.
- The response also includes an generally effective conclusion that summarizes rather than advances the essay Paul Bogard supports the preservation of natural darkness.
- List was also known as the Aleister Crowley of Vienna be cause he was deeply involved in Hindu Tantrism, a form of black magic that incorporated deviant sexual rituals J.
According to one of them, members of the Milgroup — the Military Advisory Group at the Embassy — had telephoned essay template Atlacatl base in La Libertad within a few days of the massacre. He said, ‘If I go in and let them talk to me about this thing, I’ll never be able to get anyone to go out there and fight for me again. Although the adviser believes it was the guerrillas who got word to the Embassy, a number of highly placed Salvadorans, including one prominent politician of the time who had many friends among senior officers, claim that two American advisers were actually observing the operation from the base camp at Osicala.
On its face, the charge is not entirely implausible — American advisers had been known to violate the prohibition against accompanying their charges into the field — but it is impossible to confirm.
State Department officials, however, were clearly worried about the possibility. The officers involved would surely have known, as Enders conceded, that admitting such an unfortunate misjudgment “would have ruined those guys’ careers — they would have been cashiered. So no one’s going to volunteer, ‘Hey, I was up there. Can you imagine anything more corrosive of the entire military effort? Obviously, a decision had been taken very high up in the F.
I knew the guerrillas would never have masqueraded something like this, would never have fabricated it, if they were offering safe-conduct. I was convinced that something had gone on, and that it was bad. I mean, it was pretty clear, if they were going to do this, that something must sit practice essay jimmy carter happened. A meeting was held. But there were political and military constraints that we were operating under.
Peter Romero, who was an El Salvador specialist at the State Department, says, “However much we might sit practice essay jimmy carter wanted more information, no one in State was going to make that call. It was clearly the Ambassador’s call. And at the time, basically, the Embassy staff down there were targets — they were targeted by the F.
But, as he soon learned, two other Americans were about to do just that. Late on the evening of January 3rd, in the mountains near the Salvadoran border, a dusty car pulled to a stop and disgorged into the barren Honduran landscape two Americans in hiking boots. They slung their backpacks on the ground, stretched, and after a few moments of searching found a boy who had been waiting for them — their F.
The boy led them into the quiet darkness, heading down a rocky trail to the bank of a river. Bonner how to make flash cards for research paper through F.
In early December, they had finally sat practice essay jimmy carter their trips confirmed, only to have them cancelled after the start of Operation Rescue. Later that month, Bonner’s contacts had informed him that the is buying essays illegal was on again. Ten days later, after rendezvousing with a guerrilla contact in the Tegucigalpa market, she found herself being deposited “under a bush in the middle of the night” sit practice essay jimmy carter the Honduran border, along with a pile of supplies.
Bonner and Meiselas, and Guillermoprieto, describe the trip in the same way: My strongest memory was this grouping of evangelicals, fourteen of them, who had come together thinking their faith would sit practice essay jimmy carter them.
They were buy research paper online of what had happened to them.
A few days bjt problem solving the guerrillas gave him a handwritten list, which they said contained the names of those who had died at El Mozote and in the surrounding hamlets.
A few days later, Bonner and Meiselas began the hike back to Honduras. At the middle camp, they met a battered Guillermoprieto, one of whose legs was swollen from an accident involving a rock and a mule. At just about the time Bonner sat practice essay jimmy carter Mexico City and began to file his stories, Guillermoprieto was nearing El Mozote. We kept walking, got to El Mozote. We walked down these charming and beautiful roads, then to the center of town, where there was this kind of rubbly place” — the sacristy — “and, in it, a stupefying number of bones.
There was a charred wooden beam lying on top of the bodies, and there were bones sticking up, and pieces of flesh. You could see vertebrae and femurs sticking out.
No attempt had been made to bury the bodies. A lot of people joined us as combatants then. Later, she spoke to two young men who had seen their families sat practice essay jimmy carter in La Joya.
Then, thinking of Bonner and his head start, she scribbled her Thesis 2.1 css in her notebook, folded up the pages, and hid them in a plastic film cannister.
She sit practice essay jimmy carter a guerrilla courier and persuaded him, with some difficulty, to carry the precious cargo to Tegucigalpa and deliver it to a colleague, who could telephone the story in to the Post. Craig Whitney, then the deputy foreign editor, and the deskmen managed to rush Bonner’s slightly shorter article, headlined “massacre of hundreds reported in salvador village,” into the paper’s late edition.
Six weeks after the massacre, El Mozote had made it onto the sit practice essay jimmy carter pages of America’s two most important newspapers. The following day, Ronald Reagan sent to Congress the Administration’s certification that the government of El Salvador was “making a concerted and significant effort to comply with internationally recognized human rights. A one-eyed marine he had been wounded in VietnamMcKay was known to have the best contacts among the Salvadoran officers of any American in the country.
The two men were headed for El Mozote to have a look for themselves. It was not the most propitious time. The Army was tense; three days before, guerrilla commandos had stormed Ilopango in a daring raid and had succeeded in destroying a large part of El Salvador’s Air Force as it sat on the tarmac. The congressional debate loomed large in the minds of those in the United States Embassy. They wanted to sit practice essay jimmy carter the whole thing down.
Also present, Greentree believes — he is not absolutely certain — was Domingo Monterrosa. The officers gave the Americans “a sort of after-action report, saying which units were where,” Greentree said. We were dismayed, because the Atlacatl was supposed to have developed new tactics, but now they were back to the same old shit — you know, insert a blocking force and then carry out a sweep.
Colonel Flores was not particularly happy to see the Americans, and it was clear that his attitude was shared by the other officers they encountered that day. Roofs were collapsed, buildings were destroyed, and the place was pretty much abandoned. There were blog.dominioaopublico.org.br a landing situation.
The officers’ point was that “not only were they not out there killing civilians but they were fighting for their lives in that very dangerous war zone to sit practice essay jimmy carter the civilians from guerrilla atrocities. It was probably the worst thing you could do.
I mean, you didn’t have to be a rocket scientist to know what the Army people were there for. The three Americans agreed that the information they sat practice essay jimmy carter in the refugee camp was not explicit. As Greentree put it, “I did not get any direct eyewitness accounts mahinims-fashion-house.000webhostapp.com what had taken place, of the type that Ray Bonner and Alma Guillermoprieto reported.
It was more sort of the way people were talking and the way the kids around were still looking as if they’d been through hell, and people saying, ‘Yes, my wife was killed’ — that sort of thing.
The fear was overriding, and we sensed it. Nonetheless, the interviews in the refugee camp “convinced me that there probably had been a massacre, that they had lined people up and sit practice essay jimmy carter them. And that includes the soldiers as well.
I mean, you talk to a soldier who thinks he’s taken part in some heroic operation — and a Latin soldier, I mean — you can’t get him to shut up. But Business plan for welding shop soldiers would say nothing. There was something there. But the soldiers had begun to grow quiet. They were already sensitive about the civilian with me. Now they were getting more and more sullen. You know, they’d look at the ground, mumble something about being out of radio contact.
At that point, the soldiers just stopped. In less than an hour, they could have seen for themselves the burned buildings, the ruined sacristy, and the bodies. But, with the soldiers’ refusal to go on, the Americans faced the choice of heading on across open country — guerrilla-controlled country — without protection or turning back. What made me decide — me, the big tough marine? I was scared shitless. The Americans, with their soldier escort, turned around and trooped back to Gotera, and from there the helicopter carried them back to the capital.
The investigation was over. At the Embassy, Greentree sat down and began to write, and by the following day, after consultations with Bleakley and review by others in the Embassy, including Ambassador Hinton, a lengthy cable, over the Ambassador’s name, was dispatched to Washington — a cable that provided the basis for what Assistant Secretary of State Enders told Congress two days later.
This cable, which was originally obtained in by a Washington research group called the National Security Archives under a Freedom of Information Act request, is a remarkable document. Its opening paragraph — the all-important “summary” that heads diplomatic cables — sits practice essay jimmy carter with emphasis added as follows: Although it is not possible to sit practice essay jimmy carter or disprove excesses of violence against the civilian population of El Mozote by Government troops, it is certain that the guerrilla forces who established defensive positions in El Mozote did nothing to remove them from the path of battle which they were aware was coming and had prepared for, nor is there any evidence that those who remained attempted to leave.
We are still pursuing question as to which Army units were present in El Mozote. In the entire summary, only one point is considered solid enough to be sat practice essay jimmy carter “certain” — that “the guerrilla forces who established defensive positions in El Mozote did nothing to remove [civilians] from the path of battle. The slender version of what happened in El Mozote seems to be a mixture of Army briefings and, at best, ahtishamalikhan.000webhostapp.com by Greentree and Bleakley.
How could the investigators be certain that the guerrillas did nothing to remove civilians “from the path of battle”? In any event, the assertion that guerrillas “did nothing to remove” civilians is actually contradicted later in the cable, when the authors describe an “aged couple” who said that guerrillas “told them to leave in early December.
Read now, the circumspect locutions that dominate the summary take on the aspect of shields — As i lay dying ap essay questions phrases by which the investigators deflected the burden of explicitly sitting practice essay jimmy carter what they strongly suspected had happened.
What is curious is how, instead Andrew thornton thesis building on their observations, inferences, and conclusions to present the best version possible of what probably happened, they emphasize the gap between what could be definitively proved to have happened — which, of course, wasn’t much, given the reticence of the people and the constraints on the investigators’ movements — and what the newspapers and the guerrillas were claiming had happened.
It is a peculiar way of reasoning, built, as it is, on the assumption that in the absence of definitive proof nothing at all can really be said to be known. In sit practice essay jimmy carter, officials made active use of the obstacles to finding out the truth — and formidable obstacles certainly existed in El Salvador in — to avoid saying clearly and honestly what they knew and what they suspected.
McKay, at least, seems to have been troubled by this at the time. And then when I saw the New York Times piece, and the picture, that really got me to thinking. Bonner and I had gone to Quantico together, sat practice essay jimmy carter to Vietnam together.
Though he was only twenty-eight years old, Greentree had already earned the respect of his Foreign Service colleagues and — what was much rarer in El Salvador — was considered a competent, trustworthy official by many in the press corps. Indeed, even a decade later, in his understanding of what had happened in El Salvador he seemed to me the most perceptive of the American officials I interviewed. It was Greentree who embodied the United States government in the closest contact it would make to the massacre at El Mozote, and yet it was Greentree who provided the reporting that would enable the government to deny that the massacre had happened.
It is tempting to conclude that he simply suppressed what was inconvenient, but the truth of what happened in the writing of the cable, like most of the United States’ dealings with the issue of “human rights” in El Salvador, is rather more interesting than that. Greentree’s recollection, during a series of telephone interviews, of the writing of the cable and of its contents followed a fascinating progression. Nonetheless, Greentree insisted to me that he “did not feel that what went out distorted beyond acceptability” what he had written.
In Research paper topics race and ethnicity no time during my tour in El Salvador was a report that I had anything to do with ever distorted by the Embassy.
Because those are the standards that Hinton set. He describes Hinton as “a totally credible person” and, in writing what he wrote, he clearly felt the pressure to conform to the older man’s standards.
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Yet it is hard not to suspect that Greentree’s strong belief that the cable contained more “ambiguity” than in fact it did reflects a lingering unease with the final product — a conflict that persists, even after twelve years, between what he wrote and what he felt he should have written. You doisongkhoahoc.000webhostapp.com it down, and then that becomes the eyes and ears of the United States government.
And this was especially important because the journalists reporting in El Salvador were thought to be biased. So if I had said everyone was crying, and everything — sit practice essay jimmy carter, that wouldn’t sit practice essay jimmy carter had any credibility, either.
We reported what we sit practice essay jimmy carter, and the sit practice essay jimmy carter requirement was to distinguish between what you saw and what other people said, and, even more than the standards of journalism, to keep your ‘slant’ out of what you were reporting. There was no direct corroborating evidence.
And it was not the judgment that you would think — that, you know, the Ambassador’s got to make sure that the information is politically correct. It was that, for the rest of the report to have credibility among people who were far away and whose priorities were — you pay to write an essay we’re talking about people like Tom Enders — whose priorities were definitely not necessarily about getting at exactly what happened: They were being very affected by the things I was seeing and sitting practice essay jimmy carter out there.
From the Ambassador’s perspective, he had to keep his eye on where we were supposed to be going in the country, and he had to put where the ‘truth’ was in the context of that. In other words, the possibility that the guerrillas were making a major propaganda ploy over a massacre that might or might not have occurred in El Mozote, and were doing so for the purpose of derailing U.
The emphasis on “clean” reporting permitted the blinding and deafening of the government, and served to remove from its field of perception what might have proved to be, in the Washington of earlya very inconvenient fact. In place of McKay’s clear impression that “something horrible happened,” and of Greentree’s conviction “that there probably had been a massacre, that they had lined people up and shot essay writing topics for elementary school they might find useful in impeaching the press accounts of El Mozote — deeply misleading arguments that would form the basis of the government’s effort to discredit the reports of the massacre.
After citing the numbers of dead that had appeared in the Times and the Washington Post, the cable noted, “It is estimated that no more than people were in the entire canton prior to December ” — ignoring the fact that both newspapers had made it quite clear that the massacre took place in El Mozote and in a sit practice essay jimmy carter of hamlets around it. As for the names of the dead “subsequently reported in the U. The observation about “willingly or unwillingly cooperating with the insurgents” echoes the attitude of the Salvadoran Army, in which anyone living north of the Torola must be, a priori, a guerrilla follower — and was thus, in the officers’ view, fair game.
And yet Greentree clearly understood that the reality was more complex. They were victims of this whole thing If they could get away by giving guerrillas some corn and chickens, and still live on their farms, that’s what they would do. At the same time, if the people had to get by by giving corn and chickens to the half a dozen Guardia Nacional who were living in their town, then they would do that — whatever it took to enable them to live.
And yet six weeks after the events were alleged to have taken place the Embassy reported that it had not managed to discover which units were in El Mozote — this although at least ten American advisers were assigned to the Atlacatl, the unit accused in all the press reports.
As several recently released cables confirm, however, matters were a bit more One page essay on what patriotism means to me It might be possible — we were investigating and were grateful for his help — but he should bear in mind that something had gone wrong.
Who did it, when, and in what circumstances was something else. The officer’s mission was “to specifically determine if the battalion, or elements thereof, were involved in the fighting around and in El Mozote. RO also pointed out that candid sits practice essay jimmy carter to the questions posed would facilitate countering recent press releases which were less than complimentary to the Armed Forces of El Salvador.
At this point LTC Monterrosa said At this, the Colonel again “assumed an adamant demeanor, and suggested that RO consult with the general staff, or get permission from the general staff to ask him such questions. Yet the central questions remain without definitive answers. No, it was not, he told me. I said it was clearly propaganda that its timing had been carefully calculated but there were so many details that it was difficult to deal with the stories.
The Salvadorans behave with an arrogance that bespeaks their awareness of their own power. Washington was behind them and they knew it: Why should they comply with these local officials, except in those cases where they absolutely had to? In the case of El Mozote, it was already clear that they didn’t have to. But, if we’d wanted to go any further with it, it would have taken a decision to expend a tremendous amount of effort.
Enders went up to Capitol Hill. Sitting before the House Subcommittee on Inter-American Affairs, he set out to defend the President’s certification that the Salvadoran government was making a “concerted and significant effort to comply with internationally recognized human rights.
Thus he would be arguing, in essence, that, however horrendous “the human-rights situation” might now be in El Salvador, the last year had in fact been less horrendous than the year before.
The sit practice essay jimmy carter of this argument was to shift the ground of the debate. The fight over El Mozote exemplified this. For the human-rights groups and for leading Democratic congressmen, as well as for the Administration officials, the fight would center on information and how it was gathered. The responsibility for the overwhelming sit practice essay jimmy carter of deaths is never legally determined nor usually accounted for by clear or coherent evidence. Seventy per cent of the political murders known to our Embassy were committed by unknown assailants.
In the absence of conclusive, undeniable proof, the government would feel free to assert that essay helper free was darkness. There is no evidence to confirm that government forces systematically massacred civilians in the operations zone, or that the number of civilians remotely approached the seven hundred and thirty-three or nine hundred and twenty-six victims cited in the press.
So we have to be very careful about trying to adduce evidence to the certification. We try, our Embassy tries, to investigate every report we receive. But the argument exemplifies a pattern. Claiming to have investigated “the facts” and to have found “no evidence” of a massacre, American officials then seized on aspects of the charges that, they said, reveal them to be propaganda. He pointed out that the massacre had “supposedly” taken place in December, and asked, “If it had really been a massacre and not a firefight, why didn’t we hear right off from the F.
I mean, we didn’t start hearing about it until a month later. All the same, it is indisputable that the volume of reporting about El Mozote from Venceremos, from human-rights groups, and from the international sit practice essay jimmy carter grew steadily throughout January, and reached a crescendo the day before Reagan’s certification, with the front-page stories in the Post and the Times.
Certainly a significant part of this publicity — it is impossible to say how much — was owing, directly and cfa business plan to the efforts of those, beginning sit practice essay jimmy carter the guerrillas and their international propaganda apparatus, who had a strong interest in derailing the Administration’s policy in El Salvador.
But Administration officials focussed obsessively on this unsurprising reality, as if the very fact that the El Mozote story was being used as propaganda — that it was, as Abrams put it, “significantly sat practice essay jimmy carter To many in the Administration, the importance of the massacre was that it had such propaganda value, and that the propaganda, coming at a crucial time, sat practice essay jimmy carter a threat to American sit practice essay jimmy carter.
Preserving the Salvadoran government and helping it win the war were paramount; “improving human rights” naturally took a back seat since, as the Administration liked to put it, by far the sit practice essay jimmy carter disaster that could befall human rights in El Salvador was a Communist victory.
This attitude was no mystery to the Salvadoran leaders; despite the periodic brouhahas over certain atrocities, they could see the bottom line quite clearly, which was, as Abrams phrased it, that “whatever you 220.127.116.11 of us from a human-rights point of view, what you think of us from a security point of view is determinative.
As far as the Department officials were concerned, Greentree’s cable was the end of the sit practice essay jimmy carter. The cable had come from Hinton’s Embassy, and Hinton had a great deal of prestige in the Department.
By now, however, Hinton himself had taken a rather different view. Apparently, Washington had sent out cables saying that the Ambassador, in his reply to the National Council of Churches, had denied the massacre had taken place. I still don’t believe Venceremos version but additional evidence strongly suggests that something happened that should not have happened and that it is quite possible Salvadoran military did commit excesses. To this, he added a frank appraisal of the Salvadoran officers’ credibility.
I have tried to warn him re need to face up to problem, but my impression is he thinks categoric denial is way to handle question. Department officers may essays to write to discuss matter with him They had the Greentree cable, and they would make use of it.